Israeli archaeologists have discovered the most ancient remains of Homo sapiens, dating back to the era of 194 to 177 thousand years ago. According to an article published in the journal Science, the discovery of scientists makes it necessary to move the moment of modern people’s exit from Africa by about 50 thousand years ago. Earlier, the most ancient human remains outside Africa were dated to the period of 90-120 thousand years ago.
Most modern researchers agree with the hypothesis of the African origin of modern people. According to this hypothesis, a man of subspecies sapiens appeared in Africa about 200-400 thousand years ago. In the era of 135 to 115 thousand years ago, modern people migrated from the continent. Different versions suggest that this migration took place either through North Africa or through Arabia. Science does not know the exact reasons for this migration, but, according to one of the assumptions, it could be due to a severe drought on the continent. Scientists believe that the first attempt at migration was unsuccessful – ancient people could either perish, or return back to the continent, but notes that recently archaeologists have discovered the remains of ancient immigrants in southern China. There, during the archaeological excavations, skeletons were found,
Researchers believe that the second wave of migration began 75,000 years ago and could occur shortly before or after the eruption of the Toba Supervolcano in Sumatra. This time the transition was successful – about 70 thousand years ago, the pioneers reached South and South-East Asia. About 50 thousand years ago people reached Australia, and 40 thousand years ago – to Europe. About 15 thousand years ago people appeared in America.
The article in the journal Science describes how the anthropologist Israel Gershkovitz from the University of Tel Aviv, as well as his colleagues from the United States and eight other countries, discovered in 2002 the Israeli left cave Mislia left the upper part of the human jaw. The researchers analyzed the findings and determined the age using three methods: the uranium-thorium method, thermoluminescence and electron-spin resonance dating. Research conducted by scientists in three different laboratories. In all, close dates were obtained: the analysis showed an age from 194 to 177 years. The preserved teeth in the jaw indicated to the scientist that she could belong to the Homo sapiens person – the morphology and structure of teeth from the teeth of Neanderthals and other subspecies of humans was noted.
The authors also note that very near the cave Misli scientists found stone tools that had the characteristic features of Levallois technique, which appeared in the Middle Paleolithic. These tools were made as sapiens, and Neanderthals. Similar tools scientists discovered in the Paleolithic sites of the Sapiens in North, East and South Africa. This allowed scientists to assume that the Levallois tools in the Levant can also be associated with the arrival of people there. Also, the new finding is confirmed by recent genetic data, according to which crossing sapiens and Neanderthals, probably occurred earlier 200 thousand years ago.
“Earlier migration from Africa suggests that cultural or genetic exchanges with local ancient populations occurred earlier than previously thought. This coincides with the recent genetic evidence of earlier migration of people from Africa, “explained Rolf Kam, a paleoanthropologist at Binghamton University (USA).
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