Mazda will release an “eco-friendly” ICE with an efficiency of 56 percent

Engineers of the company announced the development of the engine Skyactiv-3, the emissions of which will be a quarter less than other internal combustion engines.

Mazda reports that work on creating the engine is already underway. The Skyactiv-3 efficiency is planned to approach 56 percent – in this case emissions should decrease by a quarter.

It is not yet reported how Mazda specialists plan to achieve such efficiency, but the developers plan to release the first such ICE not earlier than 2019 – it is at this time that the production of the Skyactiv-X engine is scheduled, while Skyactiv-3 will appear much later.

Despite the obvious advantages of the engine, the cars with ICE will still pollute the air more than cars with electric drive. Nevertheless, internal combustion engines will not disappear at once, so Mazda’s efforts to reduce emissions are still commendable, although in some countries even they will not be “clean” enough.

In France, for example, more than 90 percent of electricity is already produced without the release of C0 2 into the atmosphere, and European Union officials are gradually tightening the laws for car manufacturers with internal combustion engines, increasingly preferring electric cars.

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Scientists have received an “impossible” form of ice, which can exist only on Uranus

A group of scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory received a unique form of ice, called superionic ice. The main feature of this ice is that it consists of a solid crystal lattice of oxygen atoms, around which the protons rotate. The most interesting is that the appearance of such a form of matter was predicted more than 30 years ago, and according to experts, this kind of ice can not exist on our planet, but it consists of the nuclei of ice planets like Uranus.

As is known, ice consists of water, and water is an oxygen molecule connected to two molecules of hydrogen. When water freezes, its molecules can form crystal structures of arbitrary shape. The crystal lattice of “ordinary” ice consists of hexagons, but there are other forms of ice, for example, cubic ice, the lattice of which has, as it is easy to guess, the shape of the cube. But they are formed only under certain conditions, and it will not work to get them “in their own refrigerator.” To obtain the same superionic ice, the scientists squeezed water molecules with the pressure created by two diamond platforms. This structure is called ice-VII.

Crystal structure of ice-VII

After compression of water molecules, scientists created a shock wave through the crystal structure with the help of a powerful laser. Further, by increasing the strength of the shock waves, cavities were created inside the molecule between the diamond platforms. After receiving a new form of ice, scientists have studied some of its properties.

The process of formation of ice-VII by means of a laser

It turned out that the crystal lattice could retain its structure even in the temperature range from 2000 to 5000 Kelvin. Moreover, such ice could conduct an electric current. Thus, it was possible to prove that scientists succeeded in obtaining one of the forms of superionic ice, in which the crystal lattice consists of oxygen atoms, within which the nuclei of hydrogen atoms can move freely. According to Jonathan Fortney, one of the authors of the work,

“This form of ice can maintain stability under extreme conditions that occur only in the central parts of the planetary nuclei, such as Neptune or Uranus. Of course, in addition to the ice there is a fairly large number of other substances, for example, ammonia and methane. Over time, we will try to find out whether there can be a stable superionic ice in the presence of these substances. “

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